Nordland, Troms and Finnmark, Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Arctic Maritime Area
1,500,000 square kilometers
Arctic Indigenous Peoples
Nearly half of Norway’s land mass is Arctic territory, consisting of the two counties Nordland and the combined county of Troms and Finnmark on the mainland, the Svalbard archipelago and the island of Jan Mayen. Norway’s Arctic territory is home to around 490,000 people – one tenth of the Norwegian population. The country’s Arctic maritime area is approximately 1,500,000 square kilometers, corresponding to the combined land area of France, Germany and Spain.
The Arctic archipelago of Svalbard is located halfway between mainland Norway and the North Pole. About half the land is ice-covered. The largest island of the archipelago is called Spitsbergen, and until 1925 this name was used for the whole archipelago. The administrative center of Longyearbyen and the other inhabited areas of the archipelago are located on this island. Svalbard’s main industries today are coal mining, tourism and research.
Norway houses the world’s northernmost university, the Arctic University of Norway, in Tromsø. It is also home to NORD university in Bodø and the FRAM High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment, where 500 scientists from 20 different institutions are engaged in research in the fields of natural science, technology and social sciences.
Fishing and marine resources, in addition to livestock husbandry, has for centuries been the cornerstone of the economy in Northern Norway. Today’s economy is much more diversified. Today’s key industries include:
The Saami are an Indigenous people who live in Sápmi, an area that stretches across the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia. Estimates of the Saami population vary between 50,000 and 80,000, with the most concentrated settlements in North Norway. Since 1989, the Saami in Norway have had their own elected assembly – the Sámediggi – which acts as a consultative body for the Norwegian government authorities.
Norway held the country’s first Arctic Council chairmanship from 2007-2009. Throughout the chairmanship, Norway’s priorities included:
In the third decade of Arctic cooperation, Norway is – in addition to dealing with pollution and climate change – turning its attention to adaptation. In May 2011, the member states signed the first legally binding agreement negotiated under the auspices of the Arctic Council. The agreement establishes a binding framework for search and rescue cooperation between the member States of the Arctic Council.
Norway serves as the host country for the standing secretariat of the Council, located in Tromsø, which includes the Indigenous Peoples’ Secretariat since 2016. The secretariat of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme is co-located with the Council.
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